The Ultimate Guide To SOC 2 Trust Services Criteria

soc 2 trust services criteria tsc

In the contemporary digital landscape, SOC 2 compliance is a non-negotiable for businesses handling sensitive client data. This guide dissects the intricate elements of the SOC 2 Trust Services Criteria (TSC) and explains why these components are integral for data security and privacy.

What Are The 5 Trust Services Criteria (TSC)?

The Trust Service Criteria (TSC) form the bedrock of the SOC 2 compliance framework. Designed to evaluate an organization’s control systems, the TSC comprises five distinct principles: Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, and Privacy. Let’s explore these in detail.


What Are Trust Services Criteria (TSC)This is arguably the most fundamental of the five criteria. The Security principle revolves around protecting system resources against unauthorized access. This access can be physical, such as unauthorized entry into a data center, or digital, like an unpermitted network intrusion. Controls under this principle ensure systems are safeguarded against unauthorized access, use, or modification. It comprises the following requirements:

  • Information Protection: Implementing measures to safeguard sensitive information from unauthorized access, such as encryption, access controls, and secure authentication methods.
  • System Defense: Establishing robust security measures to prevent unauthorized intrusion, including firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and regular security monitoring.
  • Damage Prevention: Implementing controls to prevent data loss, damage, or disruption caused by natural disasters, power outages, or malicious activities.


Availability pertains to the accessibility of systems, products, or services as agreed, often stipulated in a service level agreement (SLA). It covers aspects like network availability, system uptime, and incident handling, ensuring that services are operable and available for use during specified times. Key requirements include:

  • System Accessibility: Ensuring that systems and services are available and accessible to authorized users as per agreed-upon service level agreements (SLAs).
  • Network Performance: Optimizing network infrastructure to maintain consistent and reliable performance, minimizing downtime, and maximizing system availability.
  • Incident Management: Implementing processes and procedures to effectively handle and resolve incidents that may impact system availability, minimizing disruptions to operations.

Processing Integrity

The Processing Integrity principle aims to ensure that a system achieves its purpose—i.e., delivers the right data at the right price at the right time. Accordingly, data processing should be complete, valid, accurate, timely, and authorized. The processing should also align with the business’s objectives and customer expectations. Key requirements include:

  • Data Accuracy: Implementing controls to ensure the accuracy and integrity of data throughout the processing lifecycle.
  • Timeliness: Ensuring that data processing is performed in a timely manner, aligning with business requirements and customer expectations.
  • Authorized Processing: Establishing controls to ensure that data processing is performed only by authorized personnel or systems and that it adheres to defined policies and procedures.


This principle deals with the protection of information classified as confidential. As part of the Confidentiality principle, data could be encrypted, access controls could be put in place, and firewalls could be installed. Moreover, confidential data should be handled in a way that restricts access and disclosure to only authorized individuals, entities, or processes. Key requirements include:

  • Encryption: Implementing encryption mechanisms to protect sensitive data in transit and at rest.
  • Access Controls: Establishing appropriate access controls to limit data access to authorized individuals, including user authentication, role-based access controls, and privileged access management.
  • Firewalls: Implementing network and application firewalls to control and monitor incoming and outgoing network traffic, protecting against unauthorized access and potential threats.


Finally, the Privacy principle pertains to the proper collection, use, retention, and disposal of personal information. These activities should comply with an organization’s disclosed policies, as well as criteria set out in Generally Accepted Privacy Principles (GAPP). The main goal is to protect personal information from unauthorized access and disclosure. Key requirements include:

  • Data Collection: Defining and implementing processes for the lawful and transparent collection of personal information, ensuring compliance with applicable privacy laws and regulations.
  • Data Usage: Establishing policies and procedures for the appropriate and lawful use of personal information, including consent management and data handling practices.
  • Data Retention and Disposal: Implementing measures to retain personal information only for the necessary duration and securely disposing of it once no longer required, following data retention and disposal policies.

Deciding Which SOC 2 Trust Services Criteria (TSC) is Best For You

To decide which TSC is best suited to your organization, follow the steps below:

  • Understand Your Business Needs
    Begin by understanding your business’s specific needs and objectives. Are you operating in a heavily regulated industry, such as healthcare or finance, where privacy and confidentiality of data are paramount? Or perhaps you provide a cloud-based service where uptime (availability) and system integrity are critical. By understanding your unique business context, you can prioritize the TSCs most relevant to you.
  • Evaluate Customer and Regulatory Requirements
    Review your customers’ expectations and the regulations governing your industry. Certain sectors might place a high premium on specific TSCs. For example, if you handle customers’ personal data, Privacy, and Confidentiality will be essential. If your customers demand high system uptime, Availability should be a priority. Regulatory compliance is also a crucial factor—some laws or regulations may require compliance with specific TSCs.
  • Conduct a Risk Assessment
    Identify potential risks and vulnerabilities within your organization. A thorough risk assessment can highlight areas where additional controls and safeguards (mapped to specific TSCs) are needed. This assessment will help you understand which TSCs are most relevant to your risk mitigation strategy.
  • Consult with an Expert
    Engage with a SOC 2 expert or auditor who can provide guidance on which TSCs are most relevant to your business. These professionals can offer insights into industry best practices and help you navigate the complex landscape of SOC 2 compliance.

Remember, while you may emphasize certain TSCs based on your specific needs, it’s beneficial to implement controls across all five criteria for a comprehensive approach to data security and privacy.

TSC Alignment with COSO’s Internal Control Framework

The COSO framework provides a comprehensive model for designing, implementing, and evaluating internal control systems. The TSC aligns closely with the COSO framework’s five components of internal control:

  • Control Environment: The TSC’s Security principle corresponds to the control environment component of COSO. It emphasizes the establishment of a strong control culture, demonstrating management’s commitment to security and integrity.
  • Risk Assessment: The COSO framework’s risk assessment component aligns with the TSC’s emphasis on risk identification and management. Organizations need to conduct thorough risk assessments to identify potential vulnerabilities and prioritize their controls accordingly.
  • Control Activities: The TSC’s requirements for Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, and Privacy align with the control activities component of COSO. Organizations must implement specific control activities to mitigate risks and ensure compliance with the TSC’s principles.
  • Information and Communication: Both the TSC and COSO emphasize effective information and communication processes. Organizations should have clear communication channels and mechanisms to disseminate information regarding control objectives, policies, and procedures to relevant stakeholders.
  • Monitoring Activities: The TSC’s emphasis on ongoing monitoring aligns with the COSO framework’s component of monitoring activities. Continuous monitoring enables organizations to identify control deficiencies and take corrective action promptly.


In conclusion, understanding and implementing the SOC 2 Trust Services Criteria (TSC) is crucial for organizations seeking to enhance data security, privacy, and overall trustworthiness. The five TSC principles provide a comprehensive framework for evaluating and improving internal control systems.

By leveraging the TSC principles and aligning them with the COSO framework, organizations can establish a strong foundation for data security, privacy, and internal control. This proactive approach not only safeguards valuable assets but also fosters trust among customers, partners, and stakeholders.

If you are looking to implement any of the Infosec compliance frameworks such as SOC 2 compliance, HIPAA, ISO 27001, and GDPR compliance, Impanix can help. Book a Free consultation call with our experts or email us at  [email protected] for inquiries.