Cyber Security Threats: Types, Sources & Solutions To Defend

cyber security threats

As the digital landscape evolves, so do the threats lurking within its shadows. A comprehensive understanding of cyber security threats is not only essential but a requirement to ensure the safety of our digital assets. Through this article, we’ll delve deeper into the types of threats, their implications, and mitigation strategies to equip you with the knowledge to safeguard your digital presence.

What Are Cyber Security Threats?

What Are Cyber Security ThreatsCyber security threats are potential dangers associated with the use of the internet that could lead to harm, loss, or damage. These threats attempt to compromise the security of information systems and networks, often with the intention of stealing, altering, or destroying data.

Cybersecurity threats can target individuals, businesses, and governments. They come in various forms and can be launched by different actors, ranging from individual hackers to organized crime groups and even nation-states.

Sources Of Cyber Security Threats

While cyber threats come in various forms, they also originate from multiple sources. Understanding these sources can help in formulating effective cybersecurity strategies. Here are some of the primary sources of cyber threats:

  • Individuals: Individual hackers or hobbyists, often called “script kiddies,” might experiment with known hacking methods to exploit vulnerabilities. Although these individuals might not have advanced technical skills, they can still cause significant harm.
  • Organized Crime Groups: These are highly organized groups that conduct large-scale cybercrimes for financial gain. They use sophisticated techniques to steal information, commit fraud, and even run operations like illegal gambling and drug trafficking.
  • Insider Threats: Insider threats come from within an organization. These could be disgruntled employees, contractors, or anyone with privileged access who uses it to cause harm. Insider threats can be particularly damaging as they have an in-depth knowledge of the organization’s systems and procedures.
  • Hacktivists: Hacktivists are individuals or groups who use hacking as a form of activism. They typically target organizations to draw attention to a political or social issue. Their actions range from website defacement and DoS attacks to data breaches and leaks.
  • State-Sponsored Actors: These are hackers or groups sponsored by nations to conduct cyber espionage or cyber warfare. Their targets usually include government networks, critical infrastructure, and major corporations. Their attacks are usually sophisticated and difficult to trace.
  • Terrorist Groups: Terrorist groups may use cyber attacks to cause harm, create fear, or disrupt society. While their capability in this area has traditionally been low, it’s an evolving threat landscape as they increasingly turn to the digital arena.
  • Third-Party Providers: Third-party providers, like vendors or service providers, can inadvertently become a source of cyber threats. If they have access to an organization’s network and their own security is compromised, it can open a door for cyber attackers.

Top 10 Cyber Security Threats Examples?

In the realm of cybersecurity, understanding the different types of threats is key to implementing effective defense strategies. Here, we delve into ten major types of security threats and their subtypes.

Malware Attacks

malware security threatMalware is a collective term for various malicious software, including:

  • Viruses: These are malicious programs that replicate themselves to spread to other computers, often damaging files or systems in the process.
  • Worms: These are self-replicating programs that exploit vulnerabilities to spread across networks without user intervention.
  • Trojans: These appear as legitimate software but perform malicious activities once inside the system.
  • Ransomware: This type of malware encrypts the victim’s files and demands a ransom for the decryption key.
  • Spyware: This software secretly monitors and collects user activity and personal information.

Social Engineering Attacks

Social Engineering AttacksSocial engineering attacks manipulate individuals into divulging confidential information. They include:

  • Phishing: Attackers impersonate legitimate organizations via emails, text messages, or websites to steal sensitive data.
  • Spear Phishing: This is a targeted version of phishing where the attacker researches the victim thoroughly to make the attack more believable.
  • Baiting: Here, the attacker leaves a malware-infected device, like a USB drive, in a place it will be found, hoping someone will use the device and unknowingly install the malware.
  • Pretexting: The attacker pretends to need personal or financial data to confirm the identity of the recipient.

Supply Chain Attacks

In supply chain attacks, the attacker targets less secure elements in the supply network. These include:

  • Third-party Software Attacks: Here, attackers exploit vulnerabilities in third-party software that’s integrated into the target system.
  • Hardware Attacks: Attackers manipulate hardware at some point during its production or supply.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks

MitM attacks involve the attacker secretly intercepting and possibly altering the communication between two parties. Types include:

  • IP Spoofing: The attacker intercepts the communication after fooling the network by pretending to be a trusted host.
  • Wi-Fi Eavesdropping: The attacker intercepts data transmitted over unsecured Wi-Fi networks.

DoS & DDoS Attacks

DoS and DDoS attacks overwhelm a system’s resources, making it inaccessible to users. Types include:

  • Volume-based Attacks: The attack involves overwhelming the bandwidth of a site with immense traffic.
  • Protocol Attacks: These attacks consume all the processing capacity of a web server, causing it to crash.

Injection Attacks

Injection attacks involve inputting malicious data that leads the system to execute unintended commands. Types include:

  • SQL Injection: The attacker inserts malicious SQL statements into an entry field, forcing the database to execute unintended commands.
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): The attacker injects malicious scripts into trusted websites, which then run in the victim’s browser.

Insider Threats

Insider threats are security threats that originate from within the organization. These can be intentional or unintentional and can come from current or former employees, contractors, or business associates. They include:

  • Malicious Insiders: These individuals intentionally leak or damage malice.
  • Negligent Insiders: These individuals inadvertently cause security breaches, usually due to lack of awareness or failure to follow security practices.
  • Compromised Insiders: In this case, an outside attacker compromises an insider’s credentials to gain access to the organization’s network.

Password Attack

Password AttackPassword attacks involve an attacker trying to figure out a system’s password to gain unauthorized access. They come in several forms:

  • Brute Force Attacks: These attacks involve trying every possible combination of characters until the correct password is found.
  • Keylogging: Here, the attacker uses a program to record a user’s keystrokes, hoping to capture passwords as they are typed.
  • Credential Stuffing: In this case, the attacker uses previously leaked usernames and passwords to gain unauthorized access to accounts.

Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs)

APTs are long-term targeted attacks where the attacker gains access to a network and remains undetected for a significant period. They often target organizations with high-value information, such as governments and large corporations. They are usually sophisticated and well-coordinated, involving:

  • Spear Phishing: APTs often start with a spear-phishing attack to gain initial access to the network.
  • Lateral Movement: Once inside the network, the attacker moves laterally to find high-value targets.
  • Data Exfiltration: The attacker then steals data over a long period.

Zero-Day Attacks

Zero-day attacks exploit vulnerabilities in software or hardware that are unknown to the vendor. These ‘zero-day’ vulnerabilities are valuable to attackers because there’s no current fix. The attack remains viable until the vulnerability is patched, which might be days or months after detection.

Solutions To Prevent Cyber Security  Threats

Solutions To Prevent Cyber Security  Threats

Given the increasing number and severity of cyber attacks, it is critical to develop strong and comprehensive security measures to protect against them. Here are some strategies and solutions to consider:

  • Regular Software Updates: Ensure your software, including your operating system, browsers, and applications, are always up to date.
  • Install Antivirus and Anti-Malware Solutions: These tools can detect and eliminate various types of malicious software before they can cause damage. They should be kept updated and used to regularly scan your systems.
  • Use Strong, One-Time Passwords: Each account should have a one-time password that is a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters.
  • Implement Two-Factor Authentication (2FA): Two-factor authentication (2FA) adds an additional layer of security by requesting two pieces of identity before giving access. Even if a password is leaked, an attacker would still require a second factor to access the account, such as a fingerprint or a one-time code.
  • Protect Your Wi-Fi Network: Make sure your Wi-Fi network is password-protected and encrypted. Unsecured Wi-Fi might give cybercriminals with an easy entry point.
  • Regular Backups: Regularly back up important data and ensure that these backups are secure. In the event of a data loss situation like a ransomware attack, you can restore your data from the backup.
  • Employee Training: Staff should be educated about cyber threats and how to recognize them. This includes training on identifying phishing emails, safe internet use, and responsible handling of sensitive data.
  • Network Security: Use firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) to protect your network from potential attacks.
  • Incident Response Plan: This should include steps to identify and contain the attack, eradicate the threat, recover from the incident, and lessons learned to prevent future attacks.


We cannot overstate the importance of robust cybersecurity strategies. Whether it’s maintaining software updates, using strong, unique passwords, or investing in advanced network security solutions, each step taken is a stride toward a safer digital ecosystem. It’s not just about protecting our systems, but also about safeguarding our data, our privacy, and ultimately, our digital lives.

If you are looking to implement any of the Infosec compliance frameworks such as SOC 2 compliance, HIPAA, ISO 27001, and GDPR compliance, Impanix can help. Book a Free consultation call with our experts or email us at  [email protected] for inquiries.

Remember, in the realm of cyber security, prevention is always better than cure. Stay safe and secure in your digital journey.