What is AICPA SOC 2 & How To Ensure Security Compliance With It?

aicpa soc 2

In the rapidly expanding digital landscape, safeguarding sensitive customer data has emerged as a paramount concern for businesses. In this comprehensive guide, we’re going to demystify AICPA SOC 2, walking you through its purpose, its five trust service criteria, the different types of SOC 2 reports, and how it can contribute to your business’s data security strategy. Let’s get started!

What is AICPA SOC 2?

What is AICPA SOC 2The term AICPA SOC 2 might sound complicated, but it’s quite straightforward once you break it down. AICPA stands for the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, the body that developed this framework. SOC 2 stands for System and Organization Controls 2. Together, AICPA SOC 2 is a set of standards designed to handle customer data based on five trust service principles: security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy.

To put it simply, AICPA SOC 2 is a certification that companies can attain to prove that they meet specific criteria regarding the management and protection of customer data. It’s particularly relevant for service providers storing customer data in the cloud, such as SaaS providers. However, it’s rapidly becoming a standard for all types of organizations handling sensitive customer information.

In the following sections, we will further explore these five principles and how they contribute to robust data protection.

The Five Trust Service Criteria of AICPA SOC 2

Trust Service Criterias

AICPA SOC 2 is built upon five essential trust service criteria, formerly known as principles. These criteria serve as the foundation for evaluating the controls and processes that organizations have in place to protect customer data. Let’s delve into each of these criteria:


The security principle forms the backbone of AICPA SOC 2. It focuses on safeguarding sensitive data from unauthorized access, both physical and logical. Companies need to implement robust security measures such as access controls, firewalls, encryption, and intrusion detection systems to protect their systems and infrastructure from potential threats.


Availability, as a trust service criterion, emphasizes the importance of ensuring that systems, services, and products are available as agreed upon with customers and stakeholders. This criterion evaluates how well organizations maintain the operational functionality and accessibility of their services, minimizing disruptions and downtime.

Processing Integrity

Processing integrity refers to the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, and validity of processing data. This criterion ensures that the systems and processes in place are reliable, accurate, and free from errors or intentional manipulation. Organizations must establish controls to guarantee the integrity of the data they handle, including data validation, error handling, and audit trails.


Confidentiality addresses the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. It involves the establishment of policies, procedures, and controls to restrict access to confidential data and ensure that only authorized individuals or systems can access it. Encryption, secure data storage, and access controls are essential components of maintaining confidentiality.


Privacy focuses on the collection, use, retention, disclosure, and disposal of personal information. Organizations need to comply with relevant privacy regulations and industry best practices to ensure that customer data is handled in a responsible and lawful manner. Privacy policies, consent mechanisms, and data governance practices play a vital role in upholding privacy principles.

The AICPA SOC 2 Report Types

When it comes to AICPA SOC 2, there are two main types of reports that organizations can obtain to demonstrate their compliance and provide assurance to their stakeholders. These reports differ in terms of the scope and duration of the assessment. Let’s explore each type:

  • SOC 2 Type 1
    A SOC 2 Type 1 report evaluates the design of controls related to the five trust service criteria at a specific point in time. It provides an independent assessment of whether the controls are suitably designed to meet the specified criteria. This report is useful for organizations looking to provide assurance to their customers and business partners about the effectiveness of their control environment.SOC 2 Type 1 reports focus on the policies, procedures, and controls in place but do not assess the operating effectiveness over an extended period. It serves as a snapshot of the organization’s control environment and can help identify any gaps or areas for improvement.
  • SOC 2 Type 2
    A SOC 2 Type 2 report goes beyond the design of controls and also evaluates the operating effectiveness over a defined review period, typically six months or more. This report provides a more comprehensive assessment by examining how well the controls are implemented and operating in practice.SOC 2 Type 2 reports involve rigorous testing and analysis of the controls to determine if they are functioning effectively and providing the intended level of data protection. It provides valuable insights into the consistency and sustainability of the control environment over time, demonstrating a higher level of assurance to stakeholders.

Why is SOC 2 Compliance Important?

Why is SOC 2 Compliance ImportantSOC 2 compliance holds significant importance for organizations that handle sensitive customer data. Here are some key reasons why it should be a priority for your business:

  • Enhanced Data Security
    By adhering to the trust service criteria, organizations can enhance their data security posture. This, in turn, helps protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, breaches, and cyber threats.
  • Increased Trust from Stakeholders
    By obtaining a SOC 2 report, you provide independent assurance to your stakeholders, including customers, partners, and regulators, that you have implemented strong controls and practices to protect their data. This increases their trust in your organization and can be a competitive differentiator in the marketplace.
  • Competitive Advantage
    With the growing emphasis on data privacy and security, SOC 2 compliance can give your organization a competitive edge. It showcases your dedication to maintaining high standards of data protection and sets you apart from competitors.
  • Regulatory Compliance
    SOC 2 compliance can help your organization meet and demonstrate compliance with these regulations. This means, by aligning your practices with industry best practices and the trust service criteria, you can ensure that your organization is well-prepared to navigate the complex regulatory landscape.
  • Operational Efficiency
    Obtaining SOC 2 compliance involves assessing and improving your internal processes and controls. This can lead to increased operational efficiency, as it requires a thorough review of your data management practices, risk mitigation strategies, and overall governance structure.

How Can Organizations Prepare For A SOC 2 Audit?

 How can a company prepare for a SOC 2 audit

Preparing for a SOC 2 audit requires careful planning and diligent execution. By following a systematic approach, your company can ensure a smooth and successful audit process. Here are the key steps to help you prepare:

Conducting a Readiness Assessment

Before diving into a SOC 2 audit, it’s crucial to conduct a readiness assessment. This assessment involves evaluating your current controls, policies, and procedures against the trust service criteria. Identify any gaps or areas that require improvement to meet the required standards. A readiness assessment provides valuable insights into your organization’s current state and helps you establish a roadmap for compliance.

Implementing Necessary Controls

Based on the findings from the readiness assessment, start implementing the necessary controls and procedures to address any identified gaps. This may involve updating policies, enhancing data security measures, implementing access controls, and establishing incident response protocols. Ensure that the controls you put in place align with the trust service criteria and effectively mitigate the identified risks.

Documenting Policies and Procedures

During the audit, you’ll be required to provide documentation that demonstrates your compliance with the trust service criteria. Prepare comprehensive policies and procedures that outline how your organization handles data security, availability, processing integrity, confidentiality, and privacy. Ensure these documents are up to date, easily accessible, and accurately reflect your operational practices.

Training and Awareness

Effective training and awareness programs are crucial for ensuring that your employees understand their roles and responsibilities in maintaining SOC 2 compliance. Conduct training sessions to educate your staff about the importance of data security, confidentiality, and privacy. Foster a culture of compliance by promoting best practices and providing resources to support ongoing awareness and education.

Engage a Qualified Auditor

Selecting a qualified and experienced auditor is vital for a successful SOC 2 audit. Engage with an audit firm that specializes in SOC 2 assessments and has a strong track record in your industry. Collaborate closely with the auditor throughout the process, providing them with the necessary documentation and information they require for their assessment.


In conclusion, AICPA SOC 2 is more than just a buzzword in the realm of data security. It’s an essential framework for any company that handles sensitive customer data. Achieving SOC 2 compliance is a commitment to data privacy, integrity, and protection that enhances stakeholder trust and company reputation. And if you are looking to implement any of the Infosec compliance frameworks such as SOC 2 compliance, HIPAA, ISO 27001, and GDPR compliance, Impanix can help. Book a Free consultation call with our experts or email us at  [email protected] for inquiries.